Frequently asked questions

What is the mandatory documentation on board a ULM?

    The aerial operation of ultra-light-structured aircraft in Spain is regulated by Royal Decree 2876/1982, which regulates the registration and use of ultra-light-structured aircraft, in addition to the Order of 24 April 1985 regulating ultra-light flight.

    The documentation to be kept on board the ULM is as follows:

    • Pilot documentation: Licence in force with corresponding rating, class II medical certificate or LAPL.
    • Aircraft documentation: registration certificate (except for aircraft weighing less than 70 kg), certificate of airworthiness, station licence (if fitted with radio or other equipment using radio spectrum), aircraft insurance in force and aircraft flight manual. According to Article 22 of Law 48/1960 on Air Navigation: the aircraft logbook, the engine booklet and the propeller booklet, where applicable, shall be kept up to date in a safe place and at the disposal of the authorities that may require them.
    • Other documentation: updated letters of the area in which you will make the flight.

    Minimum aircraft equipment: first-aid kit (aircraft), portable fire extinguisher in the pilot compartment, and replacement fuses, if applicable.

What are the requirements to operate in controlled airspace with a ULM?

    In order to operate in airspace controlled by a ULM, you must request an exemption in accordance with Royal Decree 2876/1982 of 15 October 1982 regulating the registration and use of ultra-light-structured aircraft. The activities which would be considered exceptional cause, and for which the applicant must justify the exceptional reason for which he requests such suspension, shall be:

    • Sporting events requiring entry into controlled airspace or operations at altitudes higher than those provided for in the Order of 26 April 1986 (300 metres high).
    • Specific requests for entry into Control Areas (CTR) or Aerodrome Transit Zones (ATZ) for ULM for technical reasons or for the holding of events, participation in air demonstrations or in air laps.
    • Requests for aerial laps requiring entry into controlled airspace.
    • Exit outside Spanish airspace.

    However, it may be possible to examine the feasibility of processing other types of applications not collected in the above cases. To start the process, you must submit the request using the format F-CSO-ULM-01. Together with the application, you must also attach:

    • Proof of the capacity to represent the person signing the application, if applicable.
    • In the case of ULM:
    • Please note that:

    Each ULM aircraft entering controlled airspace must have a radio equipment certificate and station licence, and therefore the pilot of that aircraft should have the corresponding RTC radio telephony rating.

What are the requirements to fly with an EC-registration ULM to another EU country?

    Royal Decree 2876/1982 regulates the use of ultra-light-structured aircraft (ULMs) in national airspace only, so that AESA is not competent to issue permit/flight authorisation in other States.

    Since the legislation applicable to this type of aircraft is regulated by each State, it is considered that, in the event that an aircraft with an ultra-light structure goes on a flight to another State, it will be necessary to comply with the provisions governing that territory of ULMs, as required by Article 40 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

    It must therefore have a prior authorisation to perform the flight of the State in which the flight is to take place. The need for such authorisation by the other State is due to the fact that aircraft with an ultra-light structure do not comply with the requirements of Annex 8 to the Chicago Convention (as regards airworthiness) or with Annex I to the Chicago Convention (as regards pilot licence), and therefore these aircraft are regulated within the national framework of each country.

    You can find more information regarding the applicable regulations for General and Sport Aviation at this link.

Can commercial operation be performed with a ULM?

    The ULM has a restricted certificate of airworthiness, as it does not comply with the requirements of Annex 8 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

    Circular Instruction 11-05 A of the Directorate-General for Civil Aviation sets out the restrictions applicable to this type of aircraft, among which it is stated that it is only possible to perform private activity without remuneration.