Evidence-Based Training (EBT)

    Evidence-Based Training (EBT) is a voluntary program for commercial air transport operators, available for now only for periodic training and verification. Its next regulatory development, for subsequent implementation in conversion training and type-enabling courses, is planned from 2022.

    Motivation of the EBT

    Licence proficiency check (LPC) required by Reg. (EU) 1178/2011 or the operator proficiency check (OPC) required by Reg. (EU) 965/2012, currently require the same manoeuvres for all generations of aircraft.

    However, when analysing the operational risks of different aircraft types, we find that each group of aircraft types (called aircraft generation) has different operational risks. This is explained in detail in the IATA Data Report for Evidence-based training August 2014 1st Edition.

    The AMC1 ORO.FC.232(b)(3) provides the table with the characteristics of each aircraft generation and the aircraft types belonging to each aircraft generation.

    For each generation, there are differences in operational risks. For example, the operational risk of an engine failure on an Airbus 350 is different from a Convair 580-600, while a total loss of the speed indication may be more critical in an A320 (direct law) than in a Saab 340.

    Decision 2021/002/R (see AMC1 ORO.FC.232 (b)(1)) proposes a different training programme for each generation of aircraft, depending on the operational risks associated with each generation. This is reflected in the AMC2 to AMC7 of ORO.FC.232 available in Decision 2021/002/R.

    How to implement the EBT

    The steps to follow by those operators who wish to implement the EBT Base are:

    1- Evaluation according to the principles of EBT: This first point is not covered by the regulations, but it is the initial step in determining the status of crews in relation to the skills to be employed. Traditional training and verification requirements must continue to be met, however, the operator begins to assess competences in simulator sessions. In this step, it is essential that instructors receive training.

    2- Implementation of mixed EBT: A modification of the training requirements is needed, but the traditional FCL (LPC, paragraph 9) and OPS (OPC) verification is maintained. In this step, in accordance with the principles of EBT, the training and verification program is modified as follows:

    1. Instead of the traditional order, in mixed EBT verification is done first and training is done afterwards (stage-based training and maneuver training).
    2. Training of trainers in EBT is mandatory.
    3. A program of standardisation and agreement between the different instructors is advisable.
    4. The traditional training programme is replaced by the programme set out in the AMC2 to AMC7 of ORO.FC.232. This program requires the training of each of the elements with a specific frequency (A, B, C equivalent to 6 months, 1 year, 3 years).

    Note: For a detailed explanation of the mixed EBT, please refer to EASA documentation:

    3- EBT Base: In addition to the requirements for mixed EBT, the operator replaces the LPC, OPC and Line-Check with the EBT system proficiency check, paragraph 10 and the online proficiency assessment. Some of the additional requirements of the base EBT are:

    1. EBT training and evaluation for the instructor is mandatory, and the evaluation of such training is recorded.
    2. A program of standardisation and agreement between the different instructors is required. Concordance means the degree of agreement between the evaluators. It is a score of how homogeneity or consensus there is in the ratings given by all instructors.
    3. Training feedback and evaluations are required.
    4. Equivalence of malfunctions is required (grouping of these failures).
    5. Equivalence of approximations (grouping of approximations) is required.
    6. Full compliance with the training and frequency topics described in ORO.FC.232 AMC2 to AMC7 for applicable aircraft generation. In addition, a contextualisation of the scenarios chosen to develop the training program is required.

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